The Role of Language in the Stigma of Mental Illness

May 6, 2013

The Role of Language in the Stigma of Mental Illness
Brad Hambrick

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Brad Hambrick

The Role of Language in the Stigma of Mental Illness

BCC Staff Note: The BCC has had several posts addressing the important issue of biblical counseling and mental illness. In addition to today’s post by Brad Hambrick, we’d encourage you to read:

All Things Counseling

There is a stigma that attaches to all things counseling. I experience it as a counselor. The second question people ask when you meet someone new, after “What is your name?” is “What do you do?” Having to answer, “I’m a Pastor of Counseling,” is the double social kiss of death.

The conversation either immediately accelerates into a personal subject that carries more weight than this fledgling social relationship should bear, or there is the awkward silence as that person wonders, “Does he have telepathic powers that can read my thoughts and knows my secrets? I’d better be careful what I say… What’s that?… Am I married?… Yes, my marriage is great.”

Whatever awkwardness exists for a counselor can be greater for a counselee. I don’t think this is what “should be” but I’m merely describing what I frequently hear reported to me.

The Role of Language

One of the culprits is language. Counseling is about as awkward to talk about as sex is, and it produces a similar amount of inappropriate slang. How many slang words do you know for counselor, psychological diagnoses, the therapeutic process, psychotropic medications, or a person who struggles emotionally? The common vernacular about such matters can often be on par with a middle school locker room.

Then you take the common-versus-clinical struggle of counseling language and matters get more complicated. Consider the breadth of meaning that can be contained within the simple sentence, “I’m depressed.” That’s what we say after a bad math test, the end of romantic relationship, the death of a parent, after prolonged isolation, and when we’re hung over from alcohol (a depressant).

Then there is clinical depression which has some relation to these experiences, but may or may not be present in the down mood associated with the list of experiences above.

The problem is a vicious Catch-22. If counseling is going to be effective, then it must use language that people can understand and readily use. However, if clinical depression (or some other clinical phrase) is going to mean something more than “I’m down,” then counseling needs a language it can define and protect from being confused by common usage. We can’t have both.

C.S. Lewis describes a similar struggle in the development of the word “gentleman.” In his example we see how the “communizing” of language often robs words of their useful meaning.

“The word gentlemen originally meant something recognizable; one who had a coat of arms and some landed property. When you called someone ‘a gentleman’ you were not paying them a compliment, but merely stating a fact (p. xiii)… A gentleman, once it has been spiritualized and refined out of its old coarse, objective sense, means hardly more than a man whom the speaker likes. As a result gentleman is now a useless word… Now if once we allow people to start spiritualizing and refining, as they might say ‘deepening’, the sense of the word Christian, it too will speedily become a useless word” (Mere Christianity, C.S. Lewis, p. xiv).

However, in the case of depression and many other common counseling words, we are left wondering who “owned” the word first and who should “own” it now? It has to be “shared,” but when have people ever been good at sharing?

From Language to Stigma

The problem with shared language is that it both (a) gives people the impression they understand something they may not and (b) convinces people they are saying something helpful when they may or may not be.

Consider this simple dialogue between two friends.

Person A: “I think I’m depressed. Have you ever been depressed?”

Person B: “Yes, I’ve been depressed several times.”

Person A: “What did you do to move past it?”

What are the odds that these two people are discussing the same experience? How likely is it that what was helpful for Person B will be equally helpful for Person A? How likely is it that these two people are considering the difference between the common experiences of being depression? How many situational and personal variables will be weighed in this conversation as advice is given?

What happens when the most common answers to these questions reveal an uninformed conversation?

People get hurt. People give / receive bad or ineffective advice. People become insecure about the discussion of depression (on both sides of the conversation). A stigma emerges as this subject becomes a source of more pain rather than relief. A stigma often produces humor to cover the awkwardness and clichés to move past the complexity. Silence seems like the best alternative and it builds an insulation around the pain; ironically, this keeps it fresh.

Ultimately, the helper, helpee, and helping process begin to take on a distorted significance – either marginalized or glorified, depending on the level of hope or cynicism of a given individual.

From Stigma to Hope

It is highly unlikely that we are going to train an entire culture, or even an entire church, to know the difference between the counseling-versus-clinical usages of terms like depression. Even less likely that common conversation will be marked by intentionality and precision each time a word like depression is used.

Should pastors seek to nuance the common-versus-clinical distinction every time they speak of anxiety, depression, someone being compulsive, or hyperactive? No. That would probably add to the stigma as people feel compelled to be that precise in their day-to-day conversations.

Should churches leave this issue to the professionals and avoid such subjects? No. Again, that only adds to the stigma as people would feel like these struggles made them “different” in a way that was socially “off limits” if they admitted it. Therefore, people would have to be “that bad” before they would talk to anyone (friend or professional).

Here a few suggestions that I believe can help remove the stigma.

  1. Don’t make counseling jokes in preaching and teaching. I love a good counselor joke and I hear a lot of them, but at this stage in the Christian discourse on mental illness I believe humor reinforces stigma more than it edifies or alleviates tension.
  2. Offer discipleship classes on basic emotions like depression, anxiety, anger, and grief which include clinically accurate descriptions of these struggles and their more severe expressions bipolar, OCD, control, and PTSD. More of these resources need to be created. We won’t agree with them all and we’ll have to be okay with that.
  3. Downplay the disease model debate. For most people it is not essential that they have a position on this issue before they seek help. Scripture presents sin as a condition and as a choice. Scripture presents suffering as the environment in which we live (bodies and social networks affected by sin) and gives us hope / voice in the midst of suffering.
  4. Don’t assume that taking psychotropic medication means someone is buying into the disease model. Medication can both provide relief from symptoms and treat underlying causes; it’s not either/or. Medication does not prevent spiritual maturity.
  5. Post good Christian testimonies and resources of counseling-related struggles in our social media channels. This is where many people begin their exploration of how to understand their struggles and how conversation will be received.
  6. Encourage testimonies about counseling-related struggles in small groups and larger gatherings, but the more public the forum, the more informed the testimony needs to be about the common-versus-clinical language in their story.
  7.  In public testimonies we need to be more nuanced about anecdotal (what worked for me) versus prescriptive (general recommendations) regarding emotional struggles. Testimonies are usually better for giving hope and an example of this being a safe conversation than drawing a correlation, “My experience of depression is like your experience of depression, so what worked for me will work for you.”
  8. Be authentic about our own seasons of emotional difficulty in our preaching and teaching.
  9. Quit using air quotes when we refer to diagnoses. This is demeaning and shuts down conversation.
  10. Most importantly, every pastor should build a friendship with several people who clearly struggle with clinical depression, childhood sexual abuse, chronic pain, unwanted same-sex attraction, and similar struggles (we already know them, if we have courage and authenticity to ask). There is nothing like friendship to help us find language that is accurate, honoring, and inviting.

Join the Conversation

What suggestions would you add to the ten provided above? Which might you re-word and why?

Brad Hambrick

About Brad Hambrick

Brad is Pastor of Counseling at The Summit Church in Durham, NC. He also serves as an adjunct professor of biblical counseling at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. Brad has been married to his wife, Sallie, since 1999.

19 thoughts on “The Role of Language in the Stigma of Mental Illness

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  2. Nice post.

    I think the way many people use the term “depression” interchangeably with “sad” or “unhappy” does tend to trivialize genuine mental illness because many then associate “depression” with their own experiences of fleeting unhappiness.

    I also think that language contributes greatly to instances when kids or adults may receive medication that wasn’t really necessary. I’m a child and adolescent psychiatrist…terms like “depression” have so many meanings to so many different people that I’ve found I really need to take the time and ask very specific questions about sleeping and eating patterns, energy, concentration, relationships and extracurricular activities when the term comes up. There’s a danger that as more and more kids and adults receive mental health care that solely consists of brief visits for medication with a primary care physician or psychiatrist that physicians won’t take the time to clarify what a person means when they refer to themselves as “depressed.”

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  4. The stigma of the deliverance ministry is far greater than that of mental illness. In fact, it’s a large part of the reason there are so many mental disorders in and out of the church today. You can’t counsel or medicate a demon. They must be cast out by someone who knows his or her authority in Christ Jesus.

    Until the church wakes up to acknowledge the deep desire of God to set the captives from evil and unclean spirits in Jesus’ Name through the power of the Holy Spirit, we will continue to see an increase in suicides, drug addiction, and other manifestations of Satan’s work in the lives of those he’s oppressing, as he goes about as a roaring lion killing, stealing and destroying.

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  6. I like number 1 especially, jokes of any kind about counseling or about people with emotional and psychological problems. Pastors and pastoral counselors need some good education about mental illness. They can’t teach or be of much help to the sufferer if they are minimally informed. They need to foster and encourage compassion for those who suffer with the congregation but careful not to take it to the pity level. People with any illness don’t need pity, they need love, support and prayers and not judgment. Here is an article on how the Church and the clergy can better love and support those struggling with mental illness in their churches.

  7. These are very loaded words.

    There is truth in them, but in my personal experience with severe mental illness, those who tend to strongly advocate for ‘deliverance ministry’ can make those with legitimate mental disorders feel like they cannot be open about them because they will be judged as having insufficient faith or prayer power. God does not remove every thorn from our flesh, even though He certainly reigns over them.

  8. Zack, my experience has been the opposite of yours. Those who are severely oppressed seek help from the elders according to James 5:13-18, without embarrassment or shame. Jesus doesn’t want His blood-bought children suffering at the hands of the enemy. We’re not to let Satan get an advantage over us because of ignorance of his devices (2 Cor 2:11).

    Demon oppression, such as tormenting suicidal ideation rooted in major depression, isn’t a “thorn in the flesh.” Paul wasn’t diseased (in his eyes or elsewhere) nor was he experiencing a legitimate DSM mental disorder. The apostle took that phrase from the OT (Numbers 33:55, Joshua 23:13, Judges 2:3, 2 Samuel 23:6), which he knew better than any of us, in order to illustrate what he was experiencing. ‘Thorns’ is never used to depict sicknesses, but rather personalities; people sent to vex the Israelites.

    Paul experienced the same. He tells us right in the passage (2 Cor 12:7) what the thorn was: a messenger (angelos) of Satan sent to buffet him. They beat him up, literally. God allowed this fierce persecution, from persons under Satan’s control, to humble Paul because of the abundance of his revelations.

    However, very few of us (if any) can claim either Paul’s level of revelations or persecutions, but we can and do walk in some of the same ministry gifts he did with the godly, selfless desire and purpose to deliver the oppressed and suffering in Jesus’ Name and for His glory.

  9. Thank you, Brad, for a compassionate and carefully worded article on this issue. I see the church and the biblical counseling movement moving in a much better direction that is more balanced, compassionate, and grace-filled. Keep up the good work.

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  13. Kate, I believe that seeing mental illness as a manifestation of demons is quite dangerous. It adds to the stigma mental illness already carries. If it were as easy as finding a deliverance ministry I and many others wouldn’t be living with mental illness. Why would a person need a deliverance ministry in the first place? Isn’t my prayer as powerful as anyone else’s?

  14. Thank you for #4! It took finding the right mix of medications for me to get to a place where I could experience spiritual growth and understanding. Before my mind was confused. Until people live with mental illness they cannot understand how the illness affects the funtioning of the brain. Mental illness brings about so many distortions and makes you believe lies. Proper medication AND counseling/therapy work together to correct those distortions and teaches skills on how to spot them in the future.

  15. Ms. Anderson, Jesus spent about one-third of His ministry casting out demons. Everywhere He went He healed the sick and delivered the oppressed from evil spirits. Surely you are not saying Jesus is dangerous. Did Jesus add to the negative social stigma of mental illness? Are His ways outdated? Did He not know what He was doing? Was He misguided? Are our twenty-first century drugs better than His power to totally deliver? Are those who humbly move in the power of His Holy Spirit in obedience to Mark 16:17 and with the proper motives dangerous and adding to the stigma? Oh no, dear one – Jesus is setting the captives free. The church should rejoice with thanksgiving, praising God that He is being glorified and His people are loosed from the bondage of Satan.

    Angela, your prayer is as powerful as your faith, and if you believe and confess openly that an association of demons with mental illness is “dangerous” then your prayer will bounce off the ceiling. Please, that’s not a criticism. Again, that’s not a critical statement. But it is a spiritual reality. Jesus chided His beloved disciples for the exact same thing (Matthew 17:19-21) and they’d seen innumerable physical healings, deliverances, and miracles (John 21:25) and yet they had trouble with one case because of unbelief. We have it harder than they did because Western society is steeped in doubt and unbelief, and we haven’t physically walked with Jesus to witness His power and authority over the enemy. This is one reason third world countries are witnessing many Book of Acts type miracles, even the dead are being raised – most of them are uneducated and they have simple childlike faith. Read the blog of George and Jo in the Philippines. Be forewarned, in the midst of wondrous healings (cancers, deaf & dumb) and mighty deliverances (witchcraft spirits) there are horrible martyrdoms:

    As to praying alone, by yourself, it’s a matter of obeying Scripture. When we are sick we are told by the Holy Spirit through James to call the elders of the church (James 5:14-18) to be anointed with oil and prayed for, and the prayer of faith *will* save the sick and the Lord will raise him up. This isn’t an if-you-feel-like-it suggestion or the very last thing you do after you’ve tried everything else. It’s the first line of defense. And we’ve seen the Lord Jesus gloriously faithful to His promise over and over again. Praise His Holy Name!

    “Then came the disciples to Jesus apart, and said, ‘Why could not we cast him out?’ And Jesus said unto them, ‘Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you. Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.’”
    (Matthew 17:19-21 KJV)

    Dead Man Raised Up Out of Coffin:

  16. Pingback: Brad Hambrick. The role of language in the stigma of mental illness | Weblioteca

  17. Thank you, this was written with precision to address so much. I wish the demon hunters would back off and realize we live in a fallen world also where body and (brain&soul) break down. Not everything is a demon.

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